Figures
 Figure 1A: Combined Reversal
Rate on State Direct Appeal,State PostConviction and Federal Habeas,
197395
 Figure 1B:Combined Reversal
Rate for Completed Stages of Review, 197395
 Figure 2A:Combined Reversal
Rate for State Direct Appeal and Federal Habeas by Year of Review, 197395
 Figure 2B:Combined Reversal
Rate for State Direct Appeal and Federal Habeas by Year of Death Verdict,
197389
 Figure 2C:Direct Appeal Reversal
Rate by Year of Review, 19731995
 Figure 2D:Direct Appeal Reversal
Rate by Year of Death Verdict, 19731993
 Figure 3A:Known State PostConviction
Reversals by Year, 19732000
 Figure 3B:New Death Verdicts
by Year, 19732000
 Figure 4:Percent of Capital
Verdicts Reversed on State Direct Appeal or State PostConviction and
on Federal Habeas, 197395
 Figure 5: Percent of Death
Verdicts Reversed by Selected State Direct Appeal and Federal Habeas Courts,
197395
 Figure 6:Percent Death Verdicts
Carried Out (Nonconsensual Executions), 197395
 Figure 7A:Persons on Death
Row by Year, 19742001
 Figure 7B:Number of Executions
by Year, 19742001
 Figure 7C: Percent of Death
Row Executed by Year, 19742001
 Figure 8A:Outcomes Following
Arrest for Homicides Committed From 1973 to 1995 in States with the Death
Penalty
 Figure 8B:Known Outcomes, Three
Stages of State and Federal Court Review
 Figure 9: Overall Error Rate
and Percent of Death Verdicts Carried Out (Nonconsensual Executions),
19731995
 Figure 10: Average Time to
Final Federal Habeas Reversals and Affirmances, by Year of Final Decision,
19811995
 Figure 11: Death Verdicts per
1000 Homicides, 197395
 Figure 12: Percent of Death
Verdicts Reversed on State Direct Appeal, 197395
 Figure 13: Percent of Death
Verdicts Reversed on State Direct Appeal or State PostConviction, 197395
 Figure 14: Percent of Death
Row Verdicts Reversed on Federal Habeas Review, 197395
 Figure 15: Percent of Death
Verdicts Reversed on Federal Habeas by Selected Circuits and Their States,
1973951
 Figure 16:Combined Reversal
Rate for Completed Stages of Review, 197395
 Figure 17:Years from First
Death Verdict to First Nonconsensual Execution, 19732000
 Figure 18: Average Years from
Death Verdict to Execution, 197395
 Figure 19:Average Number of
Death Verdicts Awaiting Review, 197395
 Figure 20:Nonconsensual Executions
per 1000 Homicides, 197395
 Figure 21:Percent Death Verdicts
Carried Out (Nonconsensual Executions), 197395
 Figure 22A:(Analysis 1A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 22B:(Analysis 1B) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 22C: (Analysis 2A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Backlog
of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 22D: (Analysis 2B) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Backlog
of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 23A: (Analysis 1A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Four Factor Measure of Net State Court Caseloads, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 23B: (Analysis 1B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Four Factor Measure of Net State Court Caseloads, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 23C: (Analysis 2A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Four
Factor Measure of Net State Court Caseloads, Holding OtherFactors Constant
 Figure 23D: (Analysis 2B) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of All
State Court Cases Awaiting Decision, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 24A: (Analysis 1A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Year Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 24B: (Analysis 1B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Year Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 24C: (Analysis 2A) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Year
Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 24D: (Analysis 2B) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Year
Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 25A: (Analysis 1A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding
OtherFactors Constant
 Figure 25B: (Analysis 1B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding
OtherFactors Constant
 Figure 25C: (Analysis 2A) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Proportion
of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 25D: (Analysis 2B) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Year
of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 26A:(Analysis 1A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 26B:(Analysis 1B) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 26C: (Analysis 2A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Risk
of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 26D: (Analysis 2B) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Risk
of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 27A:(Analysis 1A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on State Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 27B:(Analysis 1B) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on State Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 27C: (Analysis 2A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 27D: (Analysis 2B) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 28A: (Analysis 1A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime,
Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 28B: (Analysis 1B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime,
Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 28C: (Analysis 2A) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Rate
of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 28D: (Analysis 2B) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Rate
of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 29A:(Analysis 1A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 29B:(Analysis 1B) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 29C: (Analysis 2A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Method
of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 29D: (Analysis 2B) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Method
of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 30A: (Analysis 1A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 30B: (Analysis 1B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 30C: (Analysis 2A) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 30D: (Analysis 2B) Effect of Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 31A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 31B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Backlog
of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 32A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Year Death Sentence was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 32B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Year
Death Sentence was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 33A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 33B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Proportion
of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 34A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 34B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Risk
of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 35A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on State Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 35B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of State
Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 36A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime, Holding
Other Factors Constant
 Figure 36B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Rate
of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 37A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 37B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of Method
of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 38A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 38B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of State
Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 39A: (Analysis 3A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) Based
on State Per Capita Spending on Courts,Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 39B: (Analysis 4A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage) of State
Per Capita Spending on Courts, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 40A: (Analysis 6A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of verdicts available for review; state postconviction
stage) Based on Year Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 40B: (Analysis 6A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of verdicts available for review; state postconviction
stage) Based on State Welfare Recipients and Spending, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 40C1: (Analysis 6A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of verdicts available for review; state postconviction
stage) Based on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 40C2: (Analysis 6B) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of verdicts available for review; state postconviction
stage) Based on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 40D: (Analysis 6A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of verdicts available for review; state postconviction
stage) Based on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41A: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Backlog
of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41B: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Four
Factor Measure of Net State Court Caseloads, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41C: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41D1: (Analysis 15A) Effect
on Reversal Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
of Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 41D2: (Analysis 15B) Effect
on Reversal Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
of Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 41E2: (Analysis 15B) Effect
on Reversal Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
of Homicide Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41F1: (Analysis 15A) Effect on
Reversal Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
of Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41F2: (Analysis 15B) Effect on
Reversal Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
of Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41G: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Rate
of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 41H: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of Method
of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 41I: (Analysis 15A) Effect on Reversal
Rate (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) of State
Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 42A:Percent of Counties
in 34 Active Capital States That Imposed No Death Verdicts, 19731995
 Figure 42B:Counties with at Least One Death
Sentence in 19731995, Counties in DeathPenalty States with No Death
Sentences
 Figure 43A: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 43B: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 43C: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on State Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43D: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on State Death sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43E: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding
Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43F: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding
Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43G: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 43H: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 43I: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43J: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43K: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime,
Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43L: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime,
Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43M: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43N: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Four Factor Measure of Net State Court Caseloads, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 43O: (Analysis 8A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Homicide Rates, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43P: (Analysis 8A) Probability of
Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages) Based
on Year Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 43Q: (Analysis 10A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of reviewed verdicts; direct appeal stage)
Based on Year Death Sentence Was Imposed, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 44A: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Backlog of Capital Verdicts Awaiting Review, Holding Other
Factors Constant
 Figure 44B: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on State Death Sentencing Rate, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 44C: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Proportion of AfricanAmericans in State Population, Holding
Other Factors Constant
 Figure 44D: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Risk of Homicide to Whites Versus Blacks, Holding Other Factors
Constant
 Figure 44E: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Method of Selecting State Judges, Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 44F: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on Rate of Arrest, Conviction and Imprisonment Per Serious Crime,
Holding Other Factors Constant
 Figure 44G: (Analysis 16A) Probability
of Reversal (as proportion of imposed verdicts; all 3 review stages)
Based on State Population Structure, Holding Other Factors Constant
