A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB AND THE INTERNET

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 Part  2
Map of ARPANET in 1973 with 37 nodes

In late 1962, civilian contractors developed the network technology that grew into the Internet. The first network to use the packet switching technology was not actually built until 1969, however, and it contained only four nodes. This network was used by the Department of Defense and was known as ARAPANET. The first ARPANET transmission occurred when Kleinrock logged on from a UCLA computer connected to a Stanford computer and typed the word "login." Although the system crashed as he typed in the "g" of "login," the Internet revolution was born. By 1973, a total of 37 nodes were in operation. DARPA did not attempt to keep the packet switching technology secret on the basis of national security, since academic institutions were involved with research and development on the ARAPANET system. ARAPANET became only one of several networks in place by the end of the 1970s including the U.S. Sprint commercial telephone network.

Diagram of a 4 node Arpanet

Since packet switched computer networks do not use identical hardware and software, and because they communicate at different bit rates, the need for inter-network communication became a critical one. Between 1973 and 1974 this need prompted Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn to present the basic ideas for the Internet Protocol, a program that moves groups of data along a route to a destination, and Transmission Control Program, which verifies that the correct data was delivered to the right address (TCP/IP) Together, these two programs allowed the various networks to communicate with each other. That same year, a Harvard Ph.D. student named Bob Metcalfe outlined the Ethernet, a locally linked computer system, in his doctoral thesis. Even Queen Elizabeth II became part of Internet history when she sent her first royal email message in 1976. Due to the advent of UNIX, multi-user operating system created by Bell Labs in the early 1970's, networks of computers could be established easily through this simple, albeit opaque means. Through the early 1980s other countries, such as Japan and the United Kingdom, began to develop their own UNIX based networks.

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB AND THE INTERNET
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